Throw, cast, fling, hurl, pitch, toss, sling can all mean to cause to move swiftly forward, sideways, upward, or downward by a propulsive movement (as of the arm) or by means of a propelling instrument or agency.
Throw , the general word, is often interchangeable with the others; basically it implies a distinctive propelling motion of the bent arm and wrist, but in practice it is applicable in respect to almost any propulsive action.
Cast is sometimes interchangeable with throw , but it typically is used when what is thrown is light and is either directly aimed or scattered more or less carefully or is thrown only in a figurative sense.
Fling implies more violence and less control in propulsion than either of the preceding words; it often implies a force gained from strong emotion (as anger, contempt, or enthusiasm).
Hurl stresses driving and impetuous force that makes for speed and distance in throwing.
Pitch sometimes means no more than to throw lightly or carelessly, but distinctively it more than any of the preceding words stresses a sense of direction and a definite target in throwing.
Toss implies light, careless, or more or less aimless throwing. The term often also suggests a throwing to and fro or up and down.
Sling suggests propelling with a sweeping or swinging motion, usually with force and suddenness.