Posterior, rear, hind, hinder, after, back are comparable when they mean behind in order of arrangement in space.
Posterior is the usual technical term for whatever is situated behind and is opposed to anterior .
Rear belongs especially to military usage, but has general application with reference to such things as structures and vehicles.
Hind, opposed to front or fore, is used most commonly with reference to related parts and designates the member or pair which is in the rear. It has sometimes more general application.
Hinder is equivalent to hind or, in nontechnical use, to posterior .
After is largely confined to nautical usage and applies to whatever is abaft the midship section, or in the rear part of a vessel, or relatively near to this part.
Back applies to what is thought of as behind, remote from, or inferior or subsidiary to, the main or more important part.