Document, monument, record, archive denote something preserved and serving as evidence (as of an event, a situation, or the thought of its time).
Document commonly designates something written or printed (as a letter, a charter, a deed, a will, or a book) or something carrying an inscription (as a coin, a tombstone, or a medal) that has value as evidence because of its contemporaneousness.
Monument is applicable to whatever serves as a memorial of the past; it is usually applied to a building, work of art, or other relic of the past, especially one that serves as a reminder (as of a country's greatness, a nation's triumphs in war, or a period's accomplishments in art).
Record implies the intent to preserve evidence of something; it denotes matter recorded (as by writing or taping) so that exact knowledge of what has occurred will be perpetuated.
Archive (see also MUSEUM ) is applicable to a document or record preserved especially throughout a long period. Its more common plural form archives suggests a miscellaneous accumulation, rather than a carefully selected collection, of records and documents.